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Individual employers and personal assistants

Data correct as at 2021/22

Next update due: March 2023

This report provides information about direct payment recipients and their personal assistants in England. It includes key figures about the size and profile of the personal assistant workforce, turnover rates, pay rates and other workforce information. 

For information about individual employers in receipt of Personal Health Budgets employing personal assistants, take a look at the latest data and report.



The majority of the information in this report was collected in January/February 2022 and therefore refers to the situation at that point in time.

Staff turnover rates and sickness rates are completed ‘over the 12 months prior to completion’ so contain information for months during different phases of the pandemic. Skills for Care will continue to monitor the impact of COVID-19 and Brexit on a monthly basis on dedicated webpages.

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Downloading the visualisation and notes about the data

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  • For information about how workforce estimates are created or rounding and suppression rules please visit our webpage on methodology.
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Key findings

  • Skills for Care estimates that around 70,000 of these were directly employing their own staff, (about 30% of all direct payment recipients).
  • Individual employers had, on average, 1.85 PAs each, creating around 130,000 jobs.
  • PAs had, on average, 1.29 PA jobs (21% of PAs held more than 1 PA job.
  • The average turnover rate of PAs was 18.3%. This was considerably lower than the turnover rate for care workers in the independent sector (35.3%).
  • The average vacancy rate of PAs was 13.1%. This was the higher than the vacancy rate amongst care workers (9.8%) as at February 2022.
  • Around 21% of PAs were on zero-hours contracts. This was much lower than care workers in the independent sector (35%).
  • The mean hourly pay rate for PAs was £10.21 (as at February 2021). This was much higher than the mean hourly rate for care workers in the independent sector (£9.56 as at December 2021).



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