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Individual employers and personal assistants

This report provides information about direct payment recipients and their personal assistants in England. It includes key figures about the size and profile of the personal assistant workforce, turnover rates, pay rates and other workforce information. Please note that the data used in this report was collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Key findings

  • Around 230,000 adults, older people and carers were receiving direct payments in 2019. Skills for Care estimate that around 70,000 of these were directly employing their own staff.
  • Individual employers had, on average, 1.93 PAs each, creating around 135,000 jobs.
  • PAs had, on average, 1.34 PA jobs each.
  • The average turnover rate of PAs was 16.7%. This was considerably lower than the turnover rate for care workers in the independent sector (40.6%).
  • The average vacancy rate of PAs was 7.9%. This was similar to the vacancy rate amongst care workers (9.1%).
  • Around 21% of PAs were on zero-hours contracts. This was much lower than care workers in the independent sector (36%).
  • The mean hourly pay rate for PAs was £9.53 (as at February 2020). This was much higher than the mean hourly rate for care workers in the independent sector (£8.78 as at December 2019).



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